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Trichinosis worm infection definition and facts. What is trichinosis worm infection? Is it a sexually transmitted disease STD? Trichinosis is a disease caused by parasitic roundworms nematodes that can infect and damage body tissues. Nematodes are a major division of the helminth family of parasitic worms for example, Trichinella spiralis. When ingested, these parasitic worms can pass through the intestinal tract to invade other tissues, such parasite infection game muscle, where they persist.
Trichinosis is also termed trichinellosis, trichiniasis, or trichinelliasis. Trichinosis is not to be confused with trichomoniasisa sexually transmitted disease caused by the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. Roundworms, also known as nematodes, are a common term for parasites that comprise the phylum Nematoda that contain mainly free-living species and are located everywhere on earth.
Roundworms are not ringworm, which is a fungal infection. Researchers estimate there may be as many asspecies, but only about 60 species infect man and animals as parasites. The most commonly identified parasites that use us and some animals as food for survival, multiplication, and spread transmission to others are termed ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and trichinosis. What are the s and symptoms of trichinosis worms?
In addition, there can be "splinter" hemorrhages under the fingernails and eye inflammation conjunctivitis. People with trichinosis infection may:. What causes trichinosis worms? Is it spread by pork? Trichinosis is caused by Trichinella species parasitic nematodes, intestinal worms, and roundworms that initially enter the body when meat containing the Trichinella parasite infection game roundworm larvae is eaten.
For humans, undercooked or raw pork and pork products, such as pork sausage, has been the meat most commonly responsible for transmitting the Trichinella parasites. It is a food-borne infection and not contagious from one human to another unless infected human muscle is eaten. However, almost any carnivore meat eater or omnivore eats meat and plants for food can both become infected and, if eaten, can transmit the disease to other carnivores and omnivores.
For example, undercooked or raw bear meat can contain livable Trichinella cysts. Therefore, if humans, dogspigs, rats, or mice eat the meat, they can become infected. In rare instances, larvae in cattle feed can infect cattle. There are six species that are known to infect humans:. Two other species, T. There are other strains antigenic variants related to named species that are unnamed and can infect humans. Trichinellosis trichinosis is not spread as to person; infection only occurs when raw undercooked meat containing the parasite is ingested. Inat least 17 people were diagnosed with the disease after eating smoked brown bear cub meat in Kataiga, Russia.
Parasite infection game is not a sexually transmitted disease STD. How common is trichinosis worm infection? Trichinosis is a common disease in many wild carnivorous and omnivorous animals worldwide, except for Australia. Infection is now relatively rare in the United States. During through16 cases were reported per year, on average.
For example, the United States has averaged only about cases per year in the last two decades. However, there are outbreaks that occur sporadically in the world when meat especially pork is improperly cooked or is contaminated with undercooked or raw wild-game meat.
If the source of the outbreak is a meat supplier, hundreds of people can become infected as was the situation that occurred in Poland in How long can trichinosis worms live? The life cycle of this particular parasite is key to the way disease develops in humans.
InJ. t and R. Owen first discovered larvae of Trichinella in a piece of human muscle during an autopsy. That same year, R. Virchow and F. Zenker discovered the complicated life cycle of Trichinella by feeding a dog Trichinella -infected meat. In humans, the larvae are ingested, released from an encapsulated encysted cyst by stomach acid except for the nonencapsulated T. The adult worms mate and then shed larvae that penetrate the gastrointestinal tract and reach the bloodstream and lymph drainage system.
The larvae are then distributed to body cells mainly skeletal muscle cells. Some skeletal muscle cells develop into nurse cells that support and protect the larvae from the host's immune system. The life cycle that requires at least two hosts. Humans are usually an incidental host. Trichinellosis in humans is acquired by ingesting meat containing cysts encysted parasite infection game of Trichinella. After exposure to gastric acid and pepsin, the larvae are released from the cysts and invade the small bowel mucosa where they develop into adult worms female 2.
After one week, the females release larvae that migrate to the striated muscles where they encyst. Trichinella pseudospiralishowever, does not encyst. Encystment is completed in four to five weeks, and the encysted larvae may remain viable for several years. Ingestion of the encysted larvae perpetuates the cycle.
Rats and rodents are primarily responsible for maintaining the endemicity of this infection.
Different animal hosts are implicated in the life cycle of the different species of Trichinella. Humans are accidentally infected when eating improperly cooked meat of these carnivorous animals or eating food contaminated with such meat. What are the risk factors for getting trichinosis worms? The major risk factor for contracting trichinosis is eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game such as bear meat, wild boar meat, or other carnivore meat. The risk of developing infection is related to the amount of larvae ingested. About 10 larvae per gram of meat muscle ingested result in a mild infection, about result in a moderate infection, while over 1, result in a severe infection.
Consequently, reducing or eliminating the of larvae in infected meat reduces both the risk and severity of infection. This is accomplished by cooking meat to a uniform temperature of 70 degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit or higher for at least a few minutes to kill encysted larvae.
Freeze parasite infection game less than 6 inches thick for 20 days at 5 F C. However, this freezing technique for wild game meat may not be effective, as Trichinella in wild animals is usually not as susceptible to freeze killing. Other cooking methods such as microwaving, smokingor salting meat often fail to kill the encysted larvae and so the risk of getting trichinosis from meat treated by these methods is increased.
What are the complications associated with trichinosis worms? What procedures and tests diagnose trichinosis worms? There are no accurate tests for the early phase of infection of the intestines. The history of eating raw or undercooked meat could be the first clue. Unfortunately, most people infected do not seek physician help during the relatively short intestinal phase. During the muscle phase of the disease, a presumptive clinical diagnosis can be made with a history of eyelid swelling, paintenderness, swelling in muscles, small hemorrhages that resemble small splinters under the fingernails, and the conjunctivitis of the eyes.
These symptoms occur a few weeks after eating the raw or undercooked meat from pork or wild animals. Other blood tests that are elevated, but not specific for trichinosis, are creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes that increase in the blood when muscle cells are damaged or destroyed. Also, a particular type of white blood cell, eosinophils, are usually increased several times their normal concentration after the muscle phase starts, but eosinophil count increases can also occur in other parasitic infections and allergies.
More specific tests parasite infection game immunofluorescence, latex agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are available that detect antibodies developed by the infected person's immune response to the parasites. However, these tests may not be positive until three or more weeks after infection and may be falsely positive in patients with infections with other parasites or autoimmune diseases.
The best test for trichinosis is a biopsy of muscle that shows larvae in the muscle tissue. In general, biopsies are done infrequently and the diagnosis is based on presumptive clinical findings, patient history, and associated blood tests outlined above. In addition, trichinosis often occurs in outbreaks a of infections occurring at about the same time.
For trichinosis, outbreaks occur when a of people eat infected meat from the same source. For example, inover patients were diagnosed with trichinosis in Poland when a meat-processing plant sold Trichinella -contaminated pork to customers. Knowledge of the source of an outbreak can help identify and diagnose individuals parasite infection game may be exposed to the parasites; it can also allow the source of the infections to be eliminated.
What is the treatment and prognosis for trichinosis worms? Is there a cure? What prevention steps can you take for trichinosis worms? Yes, trichinosis can be prevented. The CDC has outlined specific ways to prevent this disease as follows:. During the three minutes after meat is removed from the heat source, its temperature remains constant or continues to rise, which destroys pathogens. Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water.
Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. There are five unique classes of E. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacterjejunishigellaand salmonella.Parasite infection game
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